Sunday, May 24, 2020

General Albert Sidney Johnston in the Civil War

A Kentucky native, General Albert Sidney Johnston was a notable Confederate commander during the early months of the Civil War. After graduating from West Point in 1826, he later moved to Texas and joined the Texas Army where he acted as aide-de-camp to General Sam Houston. Following service in the Mexican-American War, Johnston returned to the US Army and was commanding the Department of California when the Civil War began. He soon accepted a commission as a general in the Confederate Army and was tasked with defending the region between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River. Considered one of the finest officers available at the start of the war, Johnston was mortally wounded at the Battle of Shiloh in April 1862. Early Life Born in Washington, KY on February 2, 1803, Albert Sidney Johnston was the youngest son of John and Abigail Harris Johnston. Educated locally through his younger years, Johnston enrolled at Transylvania University in the 1820s. While there he befriended the future president of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis. Like his friend, Johnston soon transferred from Transylvania to US Military Academy at West Point. Two years Davis junior, he graduated in 1826, ranked eighth in a class of forty-one. Accepting a commission as a brevet second lieutenant, Johnston was posted to the 2nd US Infantry. Moving through posts in New York and Missouri, Johnston married Henrietta Preston in 1829. The couple would produce a son, William Preston Johnston, two years later. With the beginning of the Black Hawk War in 1832, he was appointed as chief of staff to Brigadier General Henry Atkinson, the commander of US forces in the conflict. Though a well-respected and gifted officer, Johnston was forced to resign his commission in 1834, to care for Henrietta who was dying of tuberculosis. Returning to Kentucky, Johnston tried his hand at farming until her death in 1836. Texas Revolution Seeking a fresh start, Johnston traveled to Texas that year and quickly became embroiled in the Texas Revolution. Enlisting as a private in the Texas Army shortly after the Battle of San Jacinto, his prior military experience allowed him to swiftly advance through the ranks. Shortly thereafter, he was named aide-de-camp to General Sam Houston. On August 5, 1836, he was promoted to colonel and made adjutant general of the Texas Army. Recognized as a superior officer, he was named commander of the army, with the rank of brigadier general, on January 31, 1837. In the wake of his promotion, Johnston was prevented from actually taking command after being wounded in a duel with Brigadier General Felix Huston. Recovering from his injuries, Johnston was appointed Secretary of War by Republic of Texas President Mirabeau B. Lamar on December 22, 1838. He served in this role for a little over a year and led an expedition against Indians in northern Texas. Resigning in 1840, he briefly returned to Kentucky where he married Eliza Griffin in 1843. Traveling back to Texas, the couple settled on a large plantation named China Grove in Brazoria County. Fast Facts: General Albert Sidney Johnston Rank: GeneralService: US Army, Confederate ArmyBorn: February 2, 1803 in Washington, KYDied: April 6, 1862 in Hardin County, TNParents: John and Abigail Harris JohnstonSpouse: Henrietta PrestonConflicts: Mexican-American War, Civil WarKnown For: Battle of Shiloh Mexican-American War With the outbreak of the Mexican-American War in 1846, Johnston assisted in raising the 1st Texas Rifle Volunteers. Serving as the regiments colonel, the 1st Texas took part in Major General Zachary Taylors campaign in northeastern Mexico. That September, when the regiments enlistments expired on the eve of the Battle of Monterrey, Johnston convinced several of his men to stay and fight. For the remainder of the campaign, including the Battle of Buena Vista, Johnston held the title of inspector general of volunteers. Returning home at the wars end, he tended to his plantation. Battle of Buena Vista, 1847. Photograph Source: Public Domain The Antebellum Years Impressed with Johnstons service during the conflict, now-President Zachary Taylor appointed him a paymaster and major in the US Army in December 1849. One of the few Texas military men to be taken into regular service, Johnston held the position for five years and on average traveled 4,000 miles a year discharging his duties. In 1855, he was promoted to colonel and assigned to organize and lead the new 2nd US Cavalry. Two years later he successfully led an expedition into Utah to confront the Mormons. During this campaign, he successfully installed a pro-US government in Utah without any bloodshed. In reward for conducting this delicate operation, he was brevetted to brigadier general. After spending much of 1860, in Kentucky, Johnston accepted command of the Department of the Pacific and sailed for California on December 21. As the secession crisis worsened through the winter, Johnston was pressured by Californians to take his command east to fight the Confederates. Unswayed, he finally resigned his commission on April 9, 1861, after hearing that Texas had left the Union. Remaining in his post until June when his successor arrived, he traveled across the desert and reached Richmond, VA in early September. The Civil War Begins Warmly received by his friend President Jefferson Davis, Johnston was appointed a full general in the Confederate Army with a date of rank of May 31, 1861. The second-most senior officer in the army, he was placed in command of the Western Department with orders to defend between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River. Raising the Army of Mississippi, Johnstons command was soon spread thin over this wide frontier. General Albert S. Johnston. Library of Congress Though recognized as one of the prewar armys elite officers, Johnston was criticized in early 1862, when Union campaigns in the West met with success. Following the loss of Forts Henry Donelson and the Union capture of Nashville, Johnston began concentrating his forces, along with those of General P.G.T. Beauregard at Corinth, MS, with the goal of striking at Major General Ulysses S. Grants army at Pittsburg Landing, TN. Shiloh Attacking on April 6, 1862, Johnston opened the Battle of Shiloh by catching Grants army by surprise and quickly overrunning its camps. Leading from the front, Johnston was seemingly everywhere on the field directing his men. During one charge around 2:30 PM, he was wounded behind the right knee, mostly likely from friendly fire. Not thinking the injury serious he released his personal surgeon to aid several wounded soldiers. A short time later, Johnston realized that his boot was filling with blood as the bullet had nicked his popliteal artery. Feeling faint, he was taken from his horse and placed in a small ravine where he bled to death a short time later. With his loss, Beauregard ascended to command and was driven from the field by Union counterattacks the next day. Believed to be their best general General Robert E. Lee would not emerge until that summer), Johnstons death was mourned across the Confederacy. First buried in New Orleans, Johnston was the highest-ranking casualty on either side during the war. In 1867, his body was moved to the Texas State Cemetery in Austin.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

How Early Do Presidential Candidates Start Campaigning

Presidential elections are held every four years, but campaigning for the most powerful position in the free world never really ends. Politicians who aspire to the White House begin building alliances, seeking endorsements, and raising money years before they announce their intentions. The never-ending campaign is a modern phenomenon.  The  all-important role money now plays in influencing elections has forced members of  Congress  and even  the president to begin tapping donors and holding fundraisers even before theyre sworn into office. The Center for Public Integrity, a nonprofit investigative reporting organization in Washington, D.C., writes: Once upon a time not terribly long ago, federal politicians more or less kept their campaigning to election years. They reserved their energies in odd-numbered, non-election years for legislating and governing. No longer. While much of the work of running for president happens  behind the scenes, there is a moment when every candidate must step forward in a public setting and make an official declaration that they are seeking the presidency. This is when the race for president begins in earnest. The 2020 presidential election will be held Nov. 3. The Year Before the Election In the four most recent presidential races  in which there was no incumbent, the nominees  launched their campaigns an average of 531 days before the election took place. Thats about one year and seven months before the presidential election. That means presidential campaigns typically begin in the spring of the year before the presidential election. Presidential candidates select running mates much later in the campaign. 2016 Presidential Campaign The 2016 presidential election  was  held on Nov. 8, 2016.  There was no incumbent because President Barack Obama was  finishing his second and final term.   The eventual Republican nominee and president, reality-television star and billionaire real-estate developer  Donald Trump, announced his candidacy on June 16, 2015—513 days, or one year and nearly five months before the election. Democrat Hillary Clinton, a former U.S. senator who served as secretary of the Department of State under Obama, announced her presidential campaign on April 12, 2015—577 days or one year and seven months before the election. 2008 Presidential Campaign The 2008 presidential election was held on Nov. 4, 2008. There was no incumbent because President George W. Bush was serving his second and final term. Democrat Obama, the eventual victor and a U.S. senator,  announced he was seeking his partys nomination for the presidency on Feb. 10, 2007—633  days, or one year, 8 months and 25 days  before the election. Republican U.S. Sen. John McCain announced his intentions to seek his partys presidential nomination on April 25 of 2007—559 days, or one year, six months and 10 days  before the election. 2000 Presidential Campaign The 2000 presidential election was held on Nov. 7, 2000. There was no incumbent because President Bill Clinton was serving his second and final term. Republican George W. Bush, the eventual winner and governor of Texas, announced he was seeking his partys presidential nomination on June 12, 1999—514 days, or one  year, four months and 26 days before the election. Democrat Al Gore, the vice president, announced he was seeking the partys nomination for the presidency on June 16, 1999—501 days, or one year, four months and 22 days before the election. 1988  Presidential Campaign The 1988  presidential election was held on Nov. 8, 1988. There was no incumbent because President Ronald Reagan was serving his second and final term. Republican George H.W. Bush, who was vice president at the time, announced he was seeking the partys presidential nomination on Oct. 13, 1987—392 days, or one year and 26 days before the election. Democrat Michael Dukakis, the governor of Massachusetts, announced he was seeking his partys presidential nomination on April 29, 1987—559 days, or one year, six months and 10 days before the election.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Invisible Man And Racial Identity - 1813 Words

Olivia Seeney 4/19/17 ENGL 365 The Invisible Man and Racial Identity The Invisible Man is a story of individuality, equality, and identity. Many of the issues that the Invisible Man encounters during his search for purpose during this time, are applicable to individuals in the society that we live in today. Is it better to exchange our racial and cultural differences for secure equality? Or should we encourage the individuality of each culture’s differing values, characteristics, and attitudes, while recognizing that doing so nearly removes any hope for complete equality between separate nations? These conflicting views are displayed throughout this novel as the Invisible Man struggles to find himself as an African American man in a†¦show more content†¦Much like in today’s society, people have been blinded by racial stereotypes when confronted with differences and disagreements. These confrontations lead to hate and misunderstandings between those of different races or cultures. Even within the same culture there are difference s that cause individuals to misjudge one another and discriminate against those who are like them. â€Å"Racist whites sarcastically project undesirable traits upon black bodies (Hsu).† Hsuan Hsu states that â€Å"as a result of such racial projections, blacks are susceptible to both the over-identification with white ideals which Ellison’s protagonist often feels and the counter-identification which fuels the racial nationalist crusade against any interaction whatsoever with whites (Hsu).† The words of the Invisible Man’s grandfather follow the protagonist throughout his life and serve as a reminded to him that he should not let the white men that tower over him control him. He believes that in order to survive without betraying his own race one must be underhanded in the way that they live their life. Due to conflicting ideals and frames of mind the Invisible Man is tossed about his life without proper direction. Unknowingly, the protagonist of this sto ry is one that is taken advantage of easily due to his naivety and willingness to obey those that he perceives to be superior to him.Show MoreRelatedCritical Analysis: Ralph Ellisons Invisible Man Essay1651 Words   |  7 PagesRalph Ellison’s Invisible Man, we are presented with an unnamed narrator whose values and potentials are invisible to the world around him. Throughout the entirety of the novel, we see the unnamed narrator, also known as the Invisible Man, struggle in an attempt to uncover his identity buried beneath African American oppression and an aggregation of deception. Ellison shows us how lies and deceit may serve as a grave but invaluable obstacle to one’s journey to find their identity. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Mehdi Research free essay sample

The agenda of this report is to analysis the customer purchase patterns and the different factors that influence the customer decision making for purchasing any particular product or acquiring any services. The data analyzed in this report will give a general perspective in respect to consumer behavior. This can be helpful in making marketing strategies using a set of marketing mix relevant to the target audience. High Involvement Products Purchased The analysis nominates few of the high involvement products purchased by the customer. The (Table-9) shows that Gucci Shoe, phone-5 and Smuggles Gift cards are noninsured as high involvement brands by the customer. This is due to the fact that these products are socially and personally important for the customers psychological needs. For instance Gucci Shoe bought for $580 reflects social need to wear such expensive shoes to satisfy his social need at professional environment. Whereas phone-5 purchase reflects the brand consciousness of customer and also his professional need. We will write a custom essay sample on Mehdi Research or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page While purchase of Smuggles Gift card though not a very expensive purchase but requires high emotional involvement. Weekly Purchase Patterns There is a mix behavior being pursued by the customer on weekdays and weekend researches. Most of the purchases have been made at the night timings. There has been a trend of most purchases made on the weekends. Retail items have been purchased mostly on the weekdays with the influence of family. The Customer spends $2,299 for the week that clearly suggests that the customer demographics and income are way higher than the average ordinary earning per week in Australia. This may affect the purchase behavior and bring about the brand conscious behavior of customer. Approximately 59. 22% of the spending is based spent on the high involvement products which contain personal involvement of customer, which clearly suggests that the disposable income allows the customer to spend impulse. The behavior of customer A seems to be influenced both by internal and external factors. However the trend shown in Table-8 suggests that external motivators are more towards the higher side. The genuine motivators mentioned for customer A are family, friends, Known supplier or known service providers in this case. The purchase made between the weeks mentioned in Table-9 clearly suggests that customer has less personal involvement in purchasing the house hold retail goods however there is higher involvement in few services like Body massage, Shoes, Phone ND GAPS. The reason for this may be that these products are directly related to customers social or self-esteem needs. The (Table-2) suggest the relation of the suppliers and outlets that customer visited and made the purchases and also the amounts spent on each supplier or service providers. Here in Table-3 it is clearly shown the most of the purchases I. E. 33. 33% and 20% were made from Woolworth and Craggier Plaza respectively. These are mostly the FMC and the low involvement products. But this does not reflect the clear picture until there is an analysis of amounts spent on each Supplier, Service reviver or Retailer.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Free Essays on What Services Above Self Means To Me

â€Å"What Services above Self Means To Me† When I was a little girl my mother told me that â€Å"it takes an entire village to raise a single child.† Of course she told me this in response to my cries about being scolded by the lady who lived above us for playing in the street. But, what she said left a lasting impression on me. Today, although I do have healthy self-esteem, I realize that I am but a component of my community, and that the strength of any fabric is never any stronger than the strength of its weakest thread. My community is my fabric and I want to be a positive contributor to my community. The thread that I am, wants to be strong and I am, but not at the expense of my community, my state or my country. I know that I have to have a healthy balance of desire to succeed, individually, and self sacrifice, because a better me makes a better community, and a better community enables me with greater opportunity. To me, â€Å"Service above Self† means that I would work at the Animal Shelter, as I do, and devote most of my free time to volunteer work by helping people less fortunate than I am. But, these are things I derive much pleasure from. I enjoy helping people. I believe even more so, however, that â€Å"Service Above Self† is what happens when you sacrifice yourself and give the fruit of your soul. It is when you extend yourself with no concern for reimbursement or even losses. It is the thing you did purely because was the right thing to do. In many ways, my education is like service above self, because I devote a lot of myself to my studies. Studies that eventually will lead to a career in helping people. Helping people will enhance my life and add to the lives of future generations. The solidity of future generations will add to the quality of life for my family and myself and improve my community. I want to make that â€Å"village† that helped raise me proud, and I’m ... Free Essays on What Services Above Self Means To Me Free Essays on What Services Above Self Means To Me â€Å"What Services above Self Means To Me† When I was a little girl my mother told me that â€Å"it takes an entire village to raise a single child.† Of course she told me this in response to my cries about being scolded by the lady who lived above us for playing in the street. But, what she said left a lasting impression on me. Today, although I do have healthy self-esteem, I realize that I am but a component of my community, and that the strength of any fabric is never any stronger than the strength of its weakest thread. My community is my fabric and I want to be a positive contributor to my community. The thread that I am, wants to be strong and I am, but not at the expense of my community, my state or my country. I know that I have to have a healthy balance of desire to succeed, individually, and self sacrifice, because a better me makes a better community, and a better community enables me with greater opportunity. To me, â€Å"Service above Self† means that I would work at the Animal Shelter, as I do, and devote most of my free time to volunteer work by helping people less fortunate than I am. But, these are things I derive much pleasure from. I enjoy helping people. I believe even more so, however, that â€Å"Service Above Self† is what happens when you sacrifice yourself and give the fruit of your soul. It is when you extend yourself with no concern for reimbursement or even losses. It is the thing you did purely because was the right thing to do. In many ways, my education is like service above self, because I devote a lot of myself to my studies. Studies that eventually will lead to a career in helping people. Helping people will enhance my life and add to the lives of future generations. The solidity of future generations will add to the quality of life for my family and myself and improve my community. I want to make that â€Å"village† that helped raise me proud, and I’m ...

Friday, February 21, 2020

Microsoft Organisation - Overview, Challenges, Recommendations Research Paper

Microsoft Organisation - Overview, Challenges, Recommendations - Research Paper Example Unfortunately, an antitrust case was filed by the US Justice Department. The government argued that the customer must have a choice to choose products in a competitive market. It was not right on Microsoft's part to monopolise not only the operating systems market but also plan to do the same for the browser by porting their browser to the operating system. " Microsoft's share of the market for Intel-compatible PC operating systems has stood above ninety per cent. For the last couple of years, the figure has been at least ninety-five per cent, and analysts project that the share will climb even higher over the next few years. Even if Apple's Mac OS were included in the relevant market, Microsoft's share would still stand well above eighty per cent." Microsoft was set up as a company to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800, a microcomputer design from 1975, based on the Intel 8080 CPU and sold as a mail-order kit through advertisements in hobbyist magazines. The ris e and popularity of home computers are attributed to Altair 8800. This was a turning point for Microsoft. With the growing popularity of home computers, Microsoft had started to dominate the home computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s. Microsoft has been a real wealth creator for its employees and shareholders. Statistics show that subscribing to shares of Microsoft has made four billionaires and an estimated 12,000 millionaires from Microsoft employees. Microsoft has footholds in other markets besides operating systems and office suites, with assets such as the MSNBC cable television network, the MSN Internet portal, and the Microsoft Encarta multimedia encyclopedia3.